سؤالات امتحانی پایان ترم نیمسال اول 93- 92
نام درس: متون حقوقی انگلیسی : تاریخ امتحان: 21/10/1392 وقت: 90 دقیقه
تاریخ اعلام نمره اولیه : تاریخ اعلام نمره نهایی: تعداد سوال: مجموع بارم از 20:
1- Translate to Persian. (16 score)
A) One heuristic criminological approach classifies various penological strategies into the following categories: incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, community control; structure, discipline, and challenge programs. Obviously this categorizing method is not mutually exclusive. Intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, and home confinement are examples of increased community control. Otherwise, some examples of rehabilitative programs are wilderness programs, outward bond, and the recently popular correctional boot camps. It should be noted that the last mentioned programs may execute in the form of drug treatment or home-based E-surveillance.
B) There is no consensus about what specifically has caused the crime rate changes, and the intended consequences of this effectiveness. Theoretically, both the juvenile and adult correctional system emphasized on treating individuals adjudicated for delinquent or criminal offenders. In this time period, jails and prisons were referred to as “correctional institutions” and prison guards became “correctional officers”. To facilitate the implication of this sentencing method, legislatures set maximum authorized sentences; judges convicted offenders to incarceration sentence, probation, and some other community-based penalties and set maximum durations; correctional officials had power over granting good time, earned time, and furloughs; and parole boards set release date. Professional – here means parole boards – were assigned the task of determining when the offender had made sufficient progress to be awarded supervised release in the society.
C) Environmental explanations focused on the wretchedness of the inner city slum environments and questioned how an individual growing up in these environments could be held responsible for later criminal behavior. Fairness dictated that offenders be treated as individuals; anything else was vengeful. But Prosecutors were urged to make discriminating discharge decision by “assuring that offenders who merit criminal sanctions are not released and that other offenders are either released or diverted to non-criminal methods of treatment” such as diversion to community treatment. Critics of the indeterminate sentencing system argued that poor and minority offenders were discriminated against, detained offenders were coerced into programs, and offenders who challenged prison conditions were denied parole.
D) Some people argued and questioned the unbridled discretion available to criminal justice decision makers who make preferential sentences to the advantaged and coerced inmates into conformity. A virtual revolution occurred in sentencing and corrections policies and practices in the seventies and thereafter. Critics on Martinson’s research argued the work was flawed for two significant reasons. First, the methodology that had been used in most of the research was so inadequate that only a few studies warranted any unequivocal interpretations, and second, the majority of studies examined programs that were so poorly implemented they could hardly be expected to have an effect on future criminal activities.
2- Translate English vocabularies to Persian, and vis-a-vis. (4 score)
a) criminal occurrences:
b) despairing distrust:
e) felonies violating human rights:
f) fair and just prosecution:
g) crime reduction:
h) criminal’s rational choice:
i) just desserts:
j) offensive capacity:
m) psychological perspective:
o) security-oriented penology:
الف) قتل غیرعمد:
ب) جرایم علیه اموال و مالکیت:
ج) بازسازگارسازی اجتماعیِ مرتکبانِ شروع به جرم:
د) دیوان عالی کشور و دادگاه صلح افتخاری:
ی) آدمربایی – یورش – ایراد ضرب و جرح